Through the use of optogenetics, scientists were able to create a false memory within a mouse's brain. This was done by marking the neurons that fired in the mouse's brain when in one environment, transferring the mouse to a second environment and making these neurons fire whilst shocking the mouse's feet, then transferring the mouse back to the first environment. This made the mouse believe it had had an unpleasant experience in the first environment when in fact it hadn't.

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